How to Be an Elephant Bibliography

The following bibliography is a list of sources for How to Be an Elephant:



Downer, Ann. Elephant Talk: The Surprising Science of Elephant Communication. Minneapolis, MN: Twenty-First Century Books, 2011.

Kingdon, J., Happold, D., Butynski, T., Hoffmann, M., Happold, M. & Kalina, J. (eds). 2013. Mammals of Africa. Volume I: Introduction and Afrotheria. Bloomsbury Publishing, London.

Moss, Cynthia J, Croze, Harvey, and Phyllis C. Lee. The Amboseli Elephants: A Long-Term Perspective on a Long-Lived Mammal. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2011.

O’Connell, Caitlin. A Baby Elephant in the Wild. New York: HMH Books for Young Readers, 2014.

O’Connell, Caitlin. The Elephant Scientist. New York: HMH Books for Young Readers, 2011.

O’Connell, Caitlin. The Elephant’s Secret Sense: The Hidden Life of the Wild Herds of Africa. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Shoshani, J. & Tassy, P. 2013. Order Proboscidea Elephants; pp 173-194 in Kingdon, J. et al. (eds) 2013. Mammals of Africa. Volume I. Bloomsbury Publishing, London.

Shoshani, Jeheskel. Elephants: Majestic Creatures of the Wild. Facts on File, 2000.

Sims, Michael. Into the Womb: Animals. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 2009.

Sukumar, Raman. The Living Elephants: Evolutionary Ecology, Behavior, and Conservation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Sheldrick, Daphne. Life, Love, Elephants: An African Love Story. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2012.



African Elephants: Crash of the Titans. ABC International, Inc. DVD, 2004.

Elephants: Spy in the Herd. John Downer Productions, BBC Television, 2003.

Into the Womb. National Geographic. 2005.

The Secret Life of Elephants. BBC One, 2009.



Elephant Voices Website

Save The Elephants

The Elephant Listening Project

Mpala Research Centre

David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust



Mayell, Hillary. “Elephants Call Long-Distance After-Hours.” National Geographic. March 2004.

McPherson, Sarah. “Fighting for Elephants.” BBC Wildlife. January 2015.

Quammen, David. “The Elephants of Samburu.” National Geographic. September 2008:



Ahlering, M. A., Maldonado, J. E., Eggert, L. S., Fleischer, R. C., Western, D., and Brown, J. L. January 2013. “Conservation outside Protected Areas and the Effect of Human-Dominated Landscapes on Stress Hormones in Savannah Elephants.” Conservation Biology 27, No. 3, pp 569-575

Andrews, J., Mecklenborg, A., and Bercovitch, F. B. 2005. “Milk Intake and Development in a Newborn Captive African Elephant (Loxodonta africana).” Zoo Biology 24 pp 275-281
DOI 10.1002/zoo.20048

Bates, L. A., Handford, R., Lee, P. C., Njiraini, N., Poole, J. H., Sayialel, K., Sayialel, S., Moss, C. J., and Byrne, R. W. April 2010. “Why Do African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) Simulate Oestrus? An Analysis of Longitutinal Data.” PLoS ONE 5(4): e10052.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010052

Bates, L. A., Sayialel, K., Njiraini, N., Poole, J. H., Moss, C. J., and Byrne, R. W. November 2007. “Elephants Classify Human Ethnic Groups by Odor and Garment Color.” Current Biology 17Issue 22 pp  1938-1942, 20
DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2007.09.060

Bates, L. A., Sayialel, Katito N., Njiraini, Norah W., Poole, Joyce H., Moss, Cynthia J., and Byrne, Richard W. February 2008. “African elephants have expectations about the locations of out-of-sight family members.” Biology Letters 4, No. 1 pp 34-36
DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2007.0529
Andrews, J., Mecklenborg, A., and Bercovitch, F. B. May 2005. “Milk Intake and Development in a Newborn Captive African Elephant (Loxodonta africana).” Zoo Biology 24, Issue 3 pp 275-281
DOI: 10.1002/zoo.20048

*Bercovitch, F. B. and Andrews, J. March 2010. “Developmental Milestones Among African Elephant Calves on Their First Day of Life.” Zoo Biology 29, Issue 2 pp 120-126
DOI: 10.1002/zoo.20179

de Boer, W. F., van Langevelde, F., Prins, H. H. T., de Ruiter, P. C., Blanc, J., Vis, M. J. P., Gaston, K. J., and Douglas-Hamilton, I. January 2013. “Understanding spatial differences in Africa elephant densities and occurrence, a continent-wide analysis.” Biological Conservation 159 pp 468-476

Bohrer, G., Beck, P., Ngene, S. M., Skidmore, A. K., Douglas-Hamilton, I. January 2014. “Elephant movement closely tracks precipitation-driven vegetation dynamics in a Kenyan forest-savanna landscape.” Movement Ecology 2:2
DOI: 10.1186/2051-3933-2-2

Byrne, R. W. and Bates, L. A. August 2011. “Cognition in the wild: exploring animal minds with observational evidence.” Biology Letters 7, No. 4 pp 619-622
DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2011.0352

**Campos-Arceiz, A., and Blake, S. February 2011. “Megagardeners of the forest — the role of elephants in seed dispersal.” Acta Oecologica 37, Issue 6 pp 542-553
DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2011.01.014

Chiyo, P. I., Moss, C. J., and Alberts, S. C. February 2012 “The Influence of Life History Milestones and Association Networks on Crop-Raiding Behavior in Male African Elephants.” PLoS ONE 7 Issue 2, e31382
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031382

Dale, Robert H. I. March 2010. “Birth Statistics for African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in Human Care: History and Implications for Elephant Welfare.” Zoo Biology 29, Issue 2 pp 87-103
DOI: 10.1002/zoo.20234

**Damuth, John. April 1982. “Population density and body size in mammals.” Nature 290, pp 699-700
DOI: 10.1038/290699a0

Douglas-Hamilton, Iain. 2004. “Wilderness from an Elephant’s Point of View.” Wilderness and Human Communities: Proceedings fromt he 7th World Wilderness Congress, pp 313-319

Douglas-Hamilton, I., Krink, T., and Vollrath, F. March 2005. “Movements and corridors of African elephants in relation to protected areas.” The Science of Nature 92 Volume 4, pp 158-163
DOI 10.1007/s00114-004-0606-9

Dunkin, R. C., Wilson, D., Way, N., Johnson, K. and Williams, T. M. 2013. “Climate influences thermal balance and water use in African and Asian elephant : physiology can predict drivers of elephant distribution.” Journal of Experimental Biology 216, pp 2939-2952.
DOI: 10.1242/jeb.080218

Foley, C., Pettorelli, N., and Foley, L. 2008. “Severe drought and calf survival in elephants.” Biology Letters 4, No. 5 pp 541-544
DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2008.0370

Garstang, M., Larom, D., Raspet, R., and Lindeque, M. 1995. “Atmospheric Controls on Elephant Communication.” The Journal of Experimental Biology 198 Part 4, pp 939-951

**Garstang, Michael. “Elephant infrasounds: long-range communication.” Handbook of Mammalian Vocalization. Academic Press, 2010. pp 57-62

Garstang, M., Davis, R. E., Leggett, K., Frauenfeld, O. W., Greco, S., Zipser, E., and Peterson, M. “Response of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) to Seasonal Changes in Rainfall.” PLoS ONE 9 Issue 10, e108736
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0108736

Greco, B. J., Brown, T. K., Andrews, J. R. M., Swaisgood, R. R., and Caine, N. G. May 2013. “Social learning in captive African elephants (Loxondonta africana africana).” Animal Cognition 16, Issue 3, pp 459-469

Graham, M. D., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Adams, W. M., and Lee, P. C. April 2009. “The movement of African elephants in a human-dominated land-use mosaic.” Animal Conservation 12 pp 445-455
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-1795.2009.00272.x

Herbst, C., Stoeger, A. S., Frey, R., Lohscheller, J., Titze, I. R., Gumpenberger, M., and Fitch, W. T. August 2012. “How Low Can You Go? Physical Production Mechanism of Elephant Infrasonic Vocalizations.” Science Magazine 337 pp 595-599

Herler, A. and Stoeger, A. S. 2012 “Vocalizations and associated behavior of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) calves.” Behavior 149 Part 6 pp 575-599
DOI: 10.1163/156853912X648516

Ihwagi, F. W., Vollrath, F., Chira, R. M., Douglas-Hamilton, I., and Kironchi, G. March 2010. “The impact of elephants, Loxodonta africana, on woody vegetation through selective debarking in Samburu and Buffalo Springs National Reserves, Kenya.” African Journal of Ecology 48, Issue 1 pp 87-95
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2009.01089.x

Johnson, E. W. and Rasmussen, L. E. L. July 2002. “Morphological Characteristics of the Vomeronasal Organ of the Newborn Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus).” The Anatomical Record 267 Issue 3, pp 252-259
DOI: 10.1002/ar.10112

Kinahan, A. A., Inge-moller, R., Bateman, P. W., Kotze, A., and Scantlebury, M. December 2007. “Body temperature daily rhythm adaptations in African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana).” Physiology & Behavior 92 Issue 4, pp 560-565
DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.05.001

King, L. E., Soltis, J., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Savage, A. and Vollrath, F. April 2010. “Bee Threat Elicits Alarm Call in African Elephants.” PL0S ONE Issue 4, e10346
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010346

King, Lucy E. “The interaction between the African elephant (Loxodonta africana africana) and the African honey bee (Apis mellifera scutellata) and its potential application as an elephant deterrent.” Thesis. University of Oxford, 2011.

**Kowalski, N. L., Dale, R. H. I., and Mazur, C. L. H. March 2010. “A Survey of the Management and Development of Captive African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Calves: Birth to Three Months of Age.” Zoo Biology 29, Issue 2 pp 104-19
DOI: 10.1002/zoo.20195

Lee, P. C., Sayialel, S., Lindsay, W. K., and Moss, C. J. March 2012. “African elephant age determination from teeth: validation from known individuals.” African Journal of Ecology 50, Issue 1 pp 9-20
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2011.01286.x

Leighty, K. A., Soltis, J., Wesolek, C. M., and Savage, A. November 2008. “Rumble vocalizations mediate interpartner distance in African elephants, Loxodonta africana.” Animal Behavior 76 Volume 5, pp 1601-1608
DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2008.06.022

Leighty, K. A., Soltis, J., Leong, K., and Savage, A. March 2008. “Antiphonal exchanges in African elephants (Loxodonta africana): collective response to a shared stimulus, social facilitation, or true communicative event?” Behaviour 145 No. 3, pp 297-312
DOI: 10.1163/156853908783402885

Loveridge, A. J., Hunt, J. E., Murindagomo, F., and Macdonald, D. W. November 2006. “Influence of drought on predation of elephant (Loxodonta africana) calves by lions (Panthera leo) in an African wooded savannah.” Journal of Zoology 270 Issue 3, pp 523-530
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00181.x

McComb, K., Shannon, G., Durant, S. M., Sayialel, K., Slotow, R., Poole, J., and Moss, C. February 2011. “Leadership in elephants: the adaptive value of age.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B 278 pp 3270-3276
DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2011.0168
McNaughton, S. J., Ruess, R. W., and Seagle, S. W. December 1988. “Large Mammals and Process Dynamics in African Ecosystems.” BioScience 38, No. 11 pp 794-800
DOI: 10.2307/1310789

Miller, L. J. and Andrews, J. 2013. “Utilizing First Occurrence, Nursing Behavior, and Growth Data to Enhance Animal Management: An Example with African Elephants (Loxodonta africana).” International Journal of Comparative Psychology 26 pp 19-25

Narasimhan, A. July 2008. “Why do elephants have big ear flaps?” Resonance 13 Issue 7, pp 638-647
DOI: 10.1007/s12045-008-0070-5

Power, R. J. and Compion, R. X. S. July 2009. “Lion predation on elephants in the Savuti, Chobe National Park, Botswana.” African Zoology 44 Issue 1, pp 36-44
DOI: 10.1080/15627020.2009.11407437

Rasmussen, L. E. L. and Munger, B. L. September 1996. “The Sensorineural Specializations of the Trunk Tip (Finger) of the Asian Elephant, Elephas maximus.” The Anatomical Record 246 Issue 1, pp 127-134
DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0185

Rasmussen, L. E. L., Lazart, J. and Greenwood, D. R. February 2003. “Olfactory adventures of elephantine pheromones.” Biochemical Society Transactions 31 pp 137-141
DOI: 10.1042/BST0310137

Rasmussen, L. E. L. and Krishnamurthy, V. 2000. “How Chemical Signals Integrate Asian Elephant Society: The Known and the Unknown.” Zoo Biology 19 Issue 5, pp 405-423
DOI: 10.1002/1098-2361

**Schulte, B. A., Bagley, K., Correll, M., Gray, A., Heineman, S. M., Loizi, H., Malament, M., Scott, N. L., Slade, B. E., Stanley, L., Goodwin, T. E., and Rasmussen, L. E. L. 2005. “Assessing Chemical Communication in Elephants.” Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 10 pp 140-151
DOI: 10.1007/0-387-25160-X_18

Soltis, J., Blowers, T. E., and Savage, A. February 2011. “Measuring positive and negative affect in the voiced sounds of African elephants (Loxodonta africana).” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 129 Issue 2, pp 1059-1066
DOI: 10.1121/1.3531798

Soltis, J., King, L. E., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Vollrath, F., and Savage, A. February 2014. “African Elephant Alarm Calls Distinguish between Threats from Humans and Bees.” PLOS ONE Issue 2, e89403
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089403

Soltis, Joseph. “Emotional communication in African elephants (Loxodonta africana).” Evolution of Emotional Communication: From Sounds in Nonhuman Mammals to Speech and Music in Man.
Oxford University Press, 2013. pp 105-115
DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199583560.003.0007

Ssali, F., Sheil, D., and Nkurunungi, J. B. March 2013. “How selective are elephants as agents of forest tree damage in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda?” African Journal of Ecology 51, Issue 1 pp 55-65
DOI: 10.1111/aje.12006

Staub, C. G., Binford, M. W., and Stevens, F. R. December 2013. “Elephant herbivory in Majete Wildlife Reserve, Malawi.” African Journal of Ecology 51, Issue 4 pp 536-543
DOI: 10.1111/aje.12064

Stoeger, A. S., Charlton, B. D., Kratochvil, H., and Fitch, W. T. September 2011. “Vocal cues indicate level of arousal in infant African elephant roars.” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 130 Issue 3, 1700-1710
DOI: 10.1121/1.3605538

**Stoeger, A. S. and de Silva, S. August 2013. “African and Asian Elephant Vocal Communication: A Cross-Species Comparison.” Biocommunication of Animals pp 21-39
DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-7414-8_3
Stoeger, A. S., Zeppelzauer, M., and Baotic, A. March 2014. “Age-group estimation in free-ranging African elephants based on acoustic cues of low-frequency rumbles.” Bioacoustics 23 Issue 3, pp 231-246

Stoeger, A. S., Heilmann, G., Zeppelzauer, M., Ganswindt, A., Hensman, S., and Charlton, B. D. November 2012. “Visualizing Sound Emission of Elephant Vocalizations: Evidence for Two Rumble Production Types.” PLoS ONE 7 Issue 11, e48907
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048907

Stoeger, A. S., Stoeger, S., and Schwammer, H. M. June 2007. “Call repertoire of infant African elephants: First insights into the early vocal ontogeny.” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 121 Issue 6, pp 3922-3931
DOI:  10.1121/1.2722216

Wall, J., Wittemyer, G., Klinkenberg, B., and Douglas-Hamilton, I. June 2014. “Novel opportunities for wildlife conservation and research with real-time monitoring.” Ecological Society of America 24 pp 593-601
DOI: 10.1890/13-1971.1

Weissenbock, Nicole M., Weiss, Christoph M., Schwammer, Harald M., and Kratochil, Helmut. March 2010. “Thermal windows on the body surface of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) studied by infrared thermography.” Journal of Thermal Biology 35, No. 4 pp 182-188
DOI: 10.1016/j.jtherbio.2010.03.002

Weissenbock, N. M., Schober, F., Fluch, G., Weiss, C. M., Paumann, T., Schwarz, C., and Arnold, W. January 2010. “Reusable biotelemetric capsules: A convenient and reliable method for measuring core body temperature in large mammals during gut passage.” Journal of Thermal Biology 35 pp 147-153

Wesolek, C. M., Soltis, J.,Leighty, K. A., and Savage, A. 2009. “Infant African Elephant Rumble Vocalizations Vary According to Social Interactions with Adult Females.” Bioacoustics 18 Issue 3, pp 227-239
DOI: 10.1080/09524622.2009.9753603

Wittemyer, George. December 2001. “The elephant population of Samburu and Buffalo Springs National Reserves, Kenya.” African Journal of Ecology 39, Issue 4 pp 357-365
DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2028.2001.00324.x

Zeppelzauer, M., Hensman, S., and Stoeger, A. S. April 2014. “Towards an automated acoustic detection system for free-ranging elephants.” Bioacoustics 24 Issue 1, pp 13-29